In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Eurycoma Longifolia
Jack (Tongkat Ali) Root Extract

Faisal GG, Zakaria SM, Najmuldeen GF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31436/imjm.v14i1.460 ABSTRACT

Introduction: Currently, researchers are aiming to explore herbal plants to replace synthetic drugs because herbal plants contain high active compounds and fewer side effects. Our study was done to determine the antibacterial activity of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (E. longifolia) root using ethanol based extract. Methods: Five types of pathogenic bacterial strains were used; Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Disc diffusion assay and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) tests were used to determine the inhibition zone and turbidity of suspension which reflects the antibacterial activity of the extract. Results: The ethanolic extract of E. longifolia Jack root extract showed positive results against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus and B. cereus) and Gramnegative (S. typhi). B.cereus and S.typhi showed inhibition zone values of 11.76mm and 14.33mm at the extract concentration of 150mg/ml that were higher than the positive control values (9.00, 12.67mm) respectively. However, E. coli and P. aeruginosa did not show any inhibition by the ethanol-based extract. Conclusion: From the results we can conclude that E.Longifolia root extract possesses antibacterial activity that can be further explored to produce new medicinal products.

References:

Abouhamraa, Hamza (2013), Effect of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) on the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP, University of the Western Cape, ETD Repository

Ang, H. H,; Sim, M. K. (1997), Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on Penile Erection Index and Homosexual Mounting in Rats, Pharmacy and Pharmacology Communications, Volume 3, Issue 2, Pages 117-119

Bin Mohd Tambi M.I.; Imran M.K. (2010), Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility , Asian Journal of Andrology, Volume 12 Pages 376-380, https://doi.org/10.1038/aja.2010.7

Chen Y, Phang WM, Mu AK, Chan CK, Low BS, Sasidharan S, Chan KL. (2015), Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract Frontiers in Pharmacology, Vol 6 Page 211

Hien, Dao Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Phi; Thao, Tran Phuong; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Trang, Duong Thu; Minh, Nguyen Thi Thu; Cuong, Pham Van; Lan, Dang, Nguyen Hai; Dat, Nguyen Tien (2019), Anti-inflammatory effects of alkaloid enriched extract from roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume : 9 , Issue : 1 , Pages : 18-23

Khanam, Zakia; Shwu Wen, Chew; Bhat, Irshad Ul Haq (2015), Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of root and stem extracts of wild Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali), Journal of King Saud University - Science, Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 23-30

Kotirum S.; Ismail S.B.; Chaiyakunapruk N. (2015), Efficacy of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia) on erectile function improvement: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Complementary Therapies in Medicine Volume 23, Pages 693-698, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.07.009

Li, Ching-Hao; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Liao, Po-Lin; Huang, Wei-Kuang; Tse, Ling-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Jaw-Jou; Cheng, Yu-Wen (2013), Evaluation of Acute 13-Week Subchronic Toxicity and Genotoxicity of the Powdered Root of Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack), Hindawi, Research Article, Volume 2013, https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/102987

Ruan, Jingya; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Yue; Liu, Mengyang; Han, Lifeng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao (2019), Bioactive Constituents from the Roots of Eurycoma longifolia, Molecules, Volume 24(17), Pages 3157; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173157

See, Kwan Li; Tan, Shu Ying; Hirata, Yoshiyuki; Chan, Lai-Keng; Nagaoka, Yasuo; Uesato, Shinichi; Boey, Peng Lim (2021), Biotic elicitation at different feeding time in cell suspension cultures of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, a valuable medicinal plant, for enhancement of cytotoxic activity of bioactive compounds against human colon cancer cell line, In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant, Volume 58, Pages15–27

Sitanggang, Bintang Riris; Prijanti, Ani Retno; Astuty, Hendri (2018), The Role of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Extract as an Antimalarial Agent Through the Mechanism of Antioxidant Specific Activity (Superoxide Dismutase, SOD and Catalase, CAT) in Plasmodium berghei-Infected Mice, Advanced Science Letters, Volume 24, Number 9

Turck, Dominique; Bohn, Torsten; Castenmiller, Jacqueline; Henauw, Stefaan De; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen Ildico; Maciuk, Alexandre; Mangelsdorf, Inge; McArdle,Harry J; Naska, Androniki; Pelaez, Carmen; Pentieva, Kristina; Siani, Alfonso; Thies, Frank; Tsabouri, Sophia; Vinceti, Marco; Cubadda, Francesco; Frenzel, Thomas; Heinonen, Marina; Prieto Maradona, Miguel; Marchelli, Rosangela; Neuhäeuser-Berthold, Monika; Poulsen, Morten; Schlatter, Josef Rudolf; Loveren, Henk van; Matijevic,Leonard; Knutsen, Helle Katrine (2021), Safety of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) root extract as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283, EFSA Journal, Volume19, Issue 12

Udani J.K.; George A.A.; Musthapa M.; Pakdaman M.N.; Abas A. (2014), Effects of a proprietary freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on sexual performance and well-being in men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/179529

Vejayan, Jaya; Mohamed, Aini Norhidayah; Zulkifli, Amira Alia; Yahya, Yasmin Amira Che; Munir, Norliana; Yusoff, Mashitah M. (2018), Marker to authenticate Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) containing aphrodisiac herbal products, Current Science Vol. 115, No. 5, Pages 886-894

Tongkat Ali, Indonesian Root Grade A 1:200 Traditional Extract

70 Capsules @ 300 mg
https://www.amazon.ca/dp/B09Q21XZBC
Product details

120 Capsules @ 300 mg
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B08RW6V8PQ
Product details

Tongkat Ali, Indonesian Root and Bark

20 Capsules @ 450 mg
https://www.amazon.com/dp/B0842GD361
Product details

30 Capsules @ 450 mg
https://www.amazon.ca/dp/B09LXGMD2Q
Product details
https://www.amazon.com.au/dp/B094QKX85V
Product details